• comex15-bizerte-pacja-activite1189-cr

last modified April 8, 2015 by admin

Report on  National PACJA Conference

Climate Justice, Lima Conference and Paris Agreement

27th March 2015, ONFP Local, Bizerte, Tunisia

download document


1 Opening Remarks

In opening the meeting, Dr Najwa welcomed everyone and thanked them for honouring the event. She explained that the meeting is meant to discuss Lima Conference and Paris Agreement, and also give scenario of the Tunisia climate change agenda. She expressed her gratitude for the availability of the Meteorology Services, and declared the meeting open.


2 Presentations


2.1 Can We Realise Climate Justice in Tunisia and Africa – Presented by Mr Abdelaziz Kebaier (Meteorology Services)

In his presentation, Mr Kebaier explained that scientific discovery shows that carbon, gas coal are the main the contributors in heating the earth. And as such we need to take measures and ensure that we keep our temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius. The speed at which climate change impacts are being felt is quite high. And the poor are the most vulnerable and are highly affected.  Solutions to address climate change exist, and most importantly is the need for full commitment by developed countries to reduce emissions and invest in Renewable Energy. Rich countries will have to support the affected to adapt to climate change. In 2015, we need create more awareness among communities, especially towards Paris where the new climate agreement will be decided. For all of us there is unique opportunity especially for public figures to address and put measures to adapt to climate change.

The vulnerable need to be protected, thousands are suffering and are at the frontline of the impacts of climate change. There is need for effective technologies so that the poor can be able to adapt after climate threat or catastrophe. 70 % of the world’s millionaires are responsible for 50 % of climate impacts. There has been injustice in the North and South since 2009, where catastrophic climate impacts have affected communities, leading to spending’s of close to 400 million euros for relief measures. California recorded highest temperatures and extreme drought conditions in the year 2014, since 100 years ago. Australia is also facing problems in their agriculture. Our main objective is to help poor populations face climate change. Rich countries should financially protect them from climate change. In 2009 countries pledged 100 million by 2020 to fight climate change and its consequences. A part of 100 billion has to go through GCF (for the poor and for adaptation), and in the end everyone will be victorious.

 ‘’Today is the poor, tomorrow it is the rich ‘’


Proposed Solutions

1.       Change the system and modify habits of industrial societies

2.       Insist that countries , enterprises , and the rich take measures to reduce impacts

3.       Keep coal and gas in the soil and  push / propose for adoption of RE for all sectors

4.       Reinforce public transport system, and  find work near homes that  so distance to be travelled can be reduced

5.       Make sure everyone can have a clean , less polluting life and stop deforestation


Key points to respect

1.       Right to live

2.       Respected

3.       Breath clean air and not polluted air

4.       Right to good health



2.3 Post Lima And Expectations of the New Paris Agreement – Presented by Mr Augustine Njamnshi

In introducing the presentation, Mr Njamnshi laid out the foundations for CSO participation climate change decision making, explaining the international instruments which forms the basis for the participation being ,Principle10 of the Rio declaration and her Bali guidelines, The Arhus Convention and her Almaty guidelines, Articles 4 and 6 of the UNFCCC.

In his background analysis, he explained the finance needs and demands for Africa. Being that Africa needs around $25bn per year from 2010-2015 and up to $30bn to $60bn annually by 2030 for adaptation and building resilience to climate change. And developed country parties should by the year 2020 provide scaled-up financial support based on an assessed scale of contributions that constitutes at least 1.5 per cent of the GDP of Annex I parties, in order meet the needs of non-Annex I parties to tackle climate change and its adverse effects. He further explained that there is a need to kkeep Africa and the world safe and prevent catastrophic climate change, and that we must exert pressure on developed countries and ensure that they sign up to legally binding commitments that reduce emissions and limit global warming to well below 1.5°C . It is therefore everyone’s responsibility to share the effort of curbing climate change fairly. Demand domestic emission reductions by developed countries that are commensurate with science and equity, and enable a just transition in all countries. We must ensure polluters not the poor must pay. Developed countries must honor their obligations and pay at least 1.5% of their GNP to help the poor adapt and develop cleanly and sustainably.

He further supported the demands, explaining that these were derived from various processes that includes:

1.       African science-based position under the African Group of negotiators/other stakeholders were AMCEN, CAHOSOCC. All agreed on one Africa, one voice one position

  1. Pillars of Bali Roadmap which called for compromise under key pillars of negotiations: Mitigation, Adaptation, Technology transfer, Finance.

He further questioned the Durban outcomes, ‘’did Durban “kill” the payoffs/gains Africa and poor countries made under Bali Roadmap? Remember the principle of equity and CBDR is no longer guaranteed under the proposed track “Durban Platform for enhanced action” 

African CSO Expectations in a Paris Treaty

In explaining the expectations of the Paris treaty, Mr Njamnshi first defended the need for international treaty. Being 1.Support of legal certainty and the rule of law amongst nations 2.Subject to more thorough negotiation and preparation process 3.Therefore resulting in more ‘political buy-in’ resulting in better implementation and compliance 4. ‘The more legal force the better’ 5. Civil society can hold developed country governments accountable if obligations are legally binding 6. Though treaty has no guarantee for success 7. The content is important!

General overview, ideas - Key Issues to be addressed

While its objective should be “implementation of convention” the treaty should use recognised legal principles to make sure that developed countries accept full liability for previous anthropogenic GHG emission but from 2020 all Parties may need to avoid, minimize and control emissions

KEY Issues to be addressed include;

1.       Mitigation

·         Total allowed global emissions are determined by IPCC to meet (well below) 1.5 degree Celsius target.

·         Developed countries accept full liability for previous anthropogenic GHG emissions and compensate developing countries accordingly.

·         From 2020 when the new agreement enters into force the remaining available atmospheric space is allocated per capita and all Parties need to avoid, minimize and control emissions.

·         The Kyoto Protocol rules and subsequent decisions by the COP/MOP on measuring, reporting, verification etc. apply, and will be reviewed at first meeting of Parties to the new Protocol.

·         Parties need to report on emissions since 2015 (but because the Protocol enters into force in 2020 it does not address pre-2020 ambition).  


  1. Adaptation

Which builds on the adaptation framework established under the Convention and outlines the mandate of the Adaptation Committee, identifies adaptation priorities and requires the Adaptation Committee to agree further rules and regulations, for example on funding.

3.       Loss and Damage

Developed countries are liable in accordance with their respective contributions to GHG emissions since industrialization. And a loss and damage compensation fund should be established and will be integrated into the institutional arrangements on loss and damage (to be adopted in Warsaw?).The MOP will adopt rules and regulations on the type, scope and criteria for compensation claims. While developing countries will ensure that equal access to prompt and adequate compensation is available to the victims of climate change.


  1. Finance

Developed countries will be legally obliged to fund mitigation and adaptation actions in developing countries. They will annually contribute a fixed amount (e.g. jointly USD 100/430/? billion) or a percentage of their GDP (e.g. 1.5%) to the Green Climate Fund (GCF).While other parties are encouraged to make additional contributions to the GCF. The GCF and UNFCCC secretariat will annually report on payments due and received.


  1. Technology Transfer

The Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) will manage the transfer of climate-related technology and expertise to developing countries. While necessary financial resources will be made available by the Green Climate Fund. Parties shall take the necessary legislative and administrative measure to transfer and share intellectual property rights with the CTCN. In case of conflict between different legal obligations, the provisions of the new Protocol shall prevail.


People’s demands on Energy

1.       1.        Ban on new dirty energy

  1. Redirect finance from dirty energy to people’s solutions
  2. Stop privatization of energy
  3.  Reduce energy consumption
  4. Yes to decentralized community renewable energy
People’s demands on Right to Food and Water

1.      1.         Stop land grabs – people’s access to land for food production

  1.  No conversion of land from food
  2. Yes to sustainable agro-ecology and resilient food production systems


Current inside litmus test for UNFCCC outcome

1.      1 -    Does it deliver justice for impacted people?

2.       2 -   Does it provide finance and technology?

  1. Does it reduce emissions in an ambitious and equitable way?
  2. Does it close the door on false solutions?


Other issues to be addressed includes;

1.       Transparency

2.       Implementation

3.       Compliance

4.       Capacity-building

5.       Differentiation amongst parties



3       Comments from the Attendants  


In reacting to the presentations, the attendants stressed the need to ‘’speak to our children and encourage them to change their way of life and get educated on climate change and its adverse impacts. There is a need to make presentations on climate change simple, and avoid terms that are hard to understand, and we should focus more on two fronts, mitigation and adaptation.

One of the attendants explained that in their Association they want to start educating children about environment protection and the need to live in a clean and emission free environment. There is currently no conscious in taking care of our environment. We should encouraged a context where people keep the environment clean. The new and educated public developed should reflect an understanding by protecting of environment, and keeping it safe and clean.

There was a concern on the impacts of the transport sector which is highly contributing to the pollution of the environment. Attendants questioned our ability to use transport such as bicycle instead of cars, explaining further the positive impacts of this initiative in Bizerte. Participants were encouraged to be active and participate for clean environment. In giving examples, one of the attendants pointed out that the case of Italy is worth noting. Explaining that it is not only the responsibility of the council to keep the environment clean but every citizen’s responsibility too.

In agreement the participants laid out their expectations;

    1.        Call for collaboration by all associations to fight climate change
    2. .       Regional meeting to bring together all institutions and collaborate more  
    3. .       Consultations with schools to get various responses.
    4. .        Intensify awareness on  energy saving and adoption of  renewable energy
    5. .       Children to also influence behaviour change
    6.           Uphold things found in our culture and religion in relation to the environment  

In further comments, attendants questioned the loss of cultural behaviour in environment protection which is now non-existent. Calling for climate justice and rescue from suffering, pointing out that we not cause injustice. There is a need for total collaboration and creation of a conscious Africa that upholds culture that is in line with environment protection and a clean way of life.

In reacting to some of the comments from the floor, the Representative from the Meteorology Services explained that the Government is putting the climate change as a priority issue, and despite the fact that there is no clear strategy, communities are being highly encouraged to protect the environment and assist the government in curbing the impacts of climate change.  Government has also established a programme which specifically addresses natural disasters. He further explained that Tunisia has representation in the UNFCCC procedures and negotiations, and they actively participate in these. In conclusion, he explained that government will intensify its engagement of civil society and other relevant associations, applauding their efforts in addressing climate change.


Closing Remarks

In closing the meeting, Dr Najwa expressed her gratitude to the attendants for being part of the solution, and encouraged that what has been discussed be adopted and put into action.